Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake removal protein

Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries.We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues.Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application.In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites.In biological solutions, such as blood, saliva, and cell culture media, the surface chemistry of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in determining their behavior because they are directly related to types and compositions of biomolecules attached to the nanoparticle surface.

In particular, the ultraviolet–visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry has also been used to monitor the size of gold nanoparticles because their localized surface plasmon resonance peaks can be shifted to a longer wavelength by increasing their size.

However, these drug delivery nanosystems have shown some limitations regarding the toxicity of the nanoscale materials in the body.

In order to reduce their toxicity, it is crucial to study endocytosis, exocytosis, and clearance mechanisms for nanoparticles released from the nanoparticle–drug conjugates.

However, aggregates (strongly bonded between nanoparticles) and agglomerates (loosely bonded between nanoparticles or aggregates acting under weak forces, eg, van der Waals force) formed by forces between nanoparticles and components in biological media have not been fully considered to optimize their physicochemical properties for biological applications.

It was recently suggested that the aggregates or agglomerates occur when the van der Waals attractive forces between nanoparticles are larger than the electrostatic repulsive forces (Figure 2).

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Schematic of endocytosis and exocytosis patterns of nanoparticles.

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